International Issues Solvable

Poverty in The Developing Countries

There has been a lot of confusion and mistakes concerning the development policies by international institutions such as The World Bank and The United Nations in the last three decades. Whatever the confusion and mistakes have been, however, the fact is that poverty in the developing countries has been caused basically by the bloody exploitation of both capitalist and socialist powers. The economic aids and subsidies provided by these powers in order to eschew such criticism of exploitation have seldom helped people in those countries, but, instead, ended up benefiting the ruling powers of those beneficiaries (and benefiting the patron powers themselves). Even worse, in the face of such reality, Marxists still try to defend the exploitation by socialist powers as if everything is justified if it is done under the name of revolutionary justice. Revolution for whom ? Whatever the reasons they may give, exploitation is always exploitation from the eyes of the people in the developing countries. Consider the bloody conflicts in Africa and Latin America. What else are they if they are not the surrogate wars between super powers ?

A construction of the MuRatopian economy in the developing countries should start with the acceptance of their present reality as it is, by respecting their own social, cultural and regional peculiarities without resort to the large-scale industrialization pursued by the developed countries. In our opinion, probably the developing countries can enter directly into the MuRatopian economy, without experiencing both capitalist and socialist economic systems, by adopting small-scale but the most advanced and sophisticated new technologies suitable to their self-sustaining rural communities. Moreover, they can realize, at the same time, equal and fair exchange in the global and international trade with other countries under the MuRatopian system by rejecting unfair exchanges forced by the economic intervention of the super powers in the present civilization.

International Conflicts based on National Interest and Different Ideologies

The MuRatopian economy is a globally interwoven, and mutually dependent holistic system. Its many organizations are, therefore, formed across nation-state borders, and co-workers of different nationals possess in common the production units lying across the nation-state borders. For instance, if an American organization does business in the Soviet Union, it has to let some Russians participate in it as co-workers, and accordingly let them share its self-management. Hence, American and Russian co-workers begin to share the same economic interest under the same organization. In this way, the nation-state borders will be gradually removed and the MuRatopian economy will be globally interwoven as an inseparable unity. Under such new circumstances, conflict based on national interest and different ideologies will become meaningless, and sooner or later disappear from the earth. If American co-workers share economic interest with Russian co-workers, why do they have to fight against each other ? For what ?

Nuclear Threats and Arms Race

The recent fanatical anti-nuke movements in Europe, America and Japan seem to lack one fundamental and crucial point: a criticism of their own economic systems (that is, capitalism and socialism) which are causing consistent nuclear threat and arms race under the present civilization. Therefore, for the anti-nuke movements to be successful, their energies have to be oriented towards the daily life activities in order to turn the present economic system into the MuRatopian economic system, no matter what degree it seems to be a roundabout way. Once the MuRatopian economy is realized and is globally interwoven, fears of nuclear war and the necessity of a crazy arms race will disappear forever from earth, simply because Americans and Russians who used to regard each other as the number one enemy - a terrible presumption itself - will be intimate co-workers. Where will be the true enemies, then ? Probably they will be in ourselves. Our own greediness will be the number one enemy to be destroyed in the MuRatopian economy.

(Based on Chapter 10, Beyond Walras, Keynes and Marx, Peter Lang Publishing, 1988.)